Improvements in Axle Box Acceleration Measurements for the Detection of Light Squats in Railway Infrastructure


Squats are a sort of short-wave rolling contact fatigue defect whose early detection will contribute to cost reductions in the railway industry. This paper demonstrates how the first detection of squats is possible via enhanced instrumentation based on axle box acceleration (ABA) and adequate postprocessing. Three enhancements are discussed. The primary corresponds to the utilization of longitudinal ABA to reinforce measurement sensitivity to lightweight squats. Compared to vertical ABA, longitudinal ABA will not contain the vibrations of the rail, fastening, sleepers, and ballast, and thus, the impact-related vibration is significantly stronger within the signal. The second improvement considers the utilization of multiple sensors, noise-reduction techniques, and repeated measurements. Because of hunting, the wheels of a measuring train do not invariably pass over small squats; so, light-weight squats are a lot of seemingly to be detected using multiple sensors and multiple measurement runs. The third improvement issues the signal-processing resolution for the reduction of disturbances from wheel defects. Extensive field measurements show that these enhancements make the characteristics of squats a lot of visible in signals and allow the squats to be distinguished from vibrations of alternative origins.

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