A Low-Profile Wide-Beamwidth Circularly-Polarized Antenna via Two Pairs of Parallel Dipoles in a Square Contour


A circularly polarized antenna with wide axial-ratio beamwidth is presented by placing two pairs of parallel dipoles in a square contour. Firstly, our study demonstrates that circular polarization can be achieved at the broadside by setting a 90$^{circ}$ phase difference between the vertical and horizontal paired-dipoles. Secondly, the principle of wide-beamwidth circularly-polarized radiation is described under the similarity in polar and azimuthal radiation pattern for a pair of parallel dipoles. After the spacing between two parallel dipoles is studied, the similar radiation patterns in these two orthogonal planes are derived. As such, a wide-beamwidth circular polarization can be achieved by placing the two pairs of parallel dipoles vertically and horizontally while setting a 90$^{circ}$ phase difference between them. In final, a circularly-polarized printed antenna is designed and fabricated on a single dielectric substrate. The two arms of its four dipoles are formed on the lower and upper interfaces of the substrate, and they are excited by a 1-to-4 probe-to-microstrip feeding network. Experimental results show good agreement with simulated ones in terms of radiation pattern/gain, axial ratio and returned loss. In particular, the 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth at the central frequency of 1.6 GHz has extended to 126$^{circ}$ in an angular range from $-63^{circ}$ to $+63^{circ}$. The fabricated antenna exhibits a low-profile property with the height of 0.0043 free-space wavelength.

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