An Overview of the Theory and Applications of Metasurfaces: The Two-Dimensional Equivalents of Metamaterials


Metamaterials are typically built by arranging a group of tiny scatterers or apertures in a very regular array throughout a vicinity of area, therefore getting some desirable bulk electromagnetic behavior. The desired property is often one that's not normally found naturally (negative refractive index, near-zero index, etc.). Over the past ten years, metamaterials have moved from being simply a theoretical concept to a field with developed and marketed applications. 3-dimensional metamaterials can be extended by arranging electrically little scatterers or holes into a 2-dimensional pattern at a surface or interface. This surface version of a metamaterial has been given the name metasurface (the term metafilm has conjointly been used for bound structures). For many applications, metasurfaces will be used in place of metamaterials. Metasurfaces have the advantage of absorbing less physical house than do full three-dimensional metamaterial structures; consequently, metasurfaces provide the chance of less-lossy structures. During this overview paper, we have a tendency to discuss the theoretical basis by which metasurfaces ought to be characterized, and discuss their numerous applications. We have a tendency to will see how metasurfaces are distinguished from typical frequency-selective surfaces. Metasurfaces have a wide range of potential applications in electromagnetics (starting from low microwave to optical frequencies), as well as: (one) controllable “sensible” surfaces, (a pair of) miniaturized cavity resonators, (three) novel wave-guiding structures, (four) angular-independent surfaces, (5) absorbers, (half dozen) biomedical devices, (seven) terahertz switches, and (8) fluid-tunable frequency-agile materials, to call solely a few. In this review, we will see that the event in recent years of such materials and/or surfaces is bringing us closer to realizing the exciting speculations created over 100 years ago by the work of Lamb, Schuster, and Pocklington, and later by Mandel'shtam and Veselago.

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