Arbitrary-Angle Squint-Free Beamforming in Series-Fed Antenna Arrays Using Non-Foster Elements Synthesized by Negative-Group-Delay Networks


Beamforming in series-fed antenna arrays can inherently suffer from beam-squinting. To overcome the beam-squinting problem, low-dispersion, quick-wave transmission lines will be utilized. Such transmission lines can be designed by loading a regular transmission line with non-Foster reactive elements (e.g., negative capacitors and inductors). As a result of a recent development, these non-Foster reactive parts will be implemented using loss-compensated negative-cluster-delay (NGD) networks, providing a resolution to the steadiness issues related to typical non-Foster networks. During this work, transmission lines augmented by loss-compensated NGD networks, representing the non-Foster reactive-part loading, are utilized for planning wideband quick-wave, low-dispersion transmission lines. This work consolidates this non-Foster reactive element loading technique with earlier efforts where NGD networks were used to implement zero-degree section shifters for beamforming at the broadside direction, and generalizes these strategies for arbitrary-angle beamforming from backfire to endfire together with the broadside direction. Experimental results are presented for a wideband linear four-element transmitting array feed network for beamforming at 30° with respect to the broadside direction in the frequency vary 1–1.five GHz. By connecting this feed network to four wideband tapered-slot antennas, the beamforming performance is experimentally verified within an anechoic chamber. Moreover, the antenna array is experimentally tested for transmission of a slender pulse, where low distortion is observed at the beamforming angle over the complete operating bandwidth. The physical length of the feed network is realistic and is zero.ninety six wavelengths long at the middle of this frequency vary. Likewise, switched-line part shifters are used for squint-free beamforming in three different angles: sixty°, 0°, and .

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