Risk Assessment in Extreme Events Considering the Reliability of Protection Systems
This paper presents a brand new risk assessment methodology that's applicable to extreme cases in power systems. This paper analyzes the interactions among protection system parts and the ability grid in extreme events per simultaneous faults and cascading failures. The hidden failures of protection systems might exacerbate power system conditions if cascading events tend to follow a path to a blackout. The proposed risk assessment considers detailed reliability models of protection system parts including circuit breakers (CBs) and protective relays. The failure probability of a CB is formulated considering its element degradation rate and operation times. The failure model of a protecting relay is constructed using the dynamic fault tree. The evolution of cascading failures of power systems in extreme conditions, which deteriorates because of protection system malfunctions, is modeled primarily based on the particular physical system behavior. The effectiveness of the proposed risk assessment method is demonstrated employing a changed nine-bus system and also the IEEE sixty eight-bus system.
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