Precision agriculture refers to a set of technologies that introduce the concept of local variation into the large-scale mechanization, which is essential to large fields. With the determination of soil conditions and plant development, these technologies can lower the production cost by fine tuning seeding, fertilizer, and potentially increasing production. These can be achieved through the approach of agricultural control and management based on direct chemical, biological and environmental sensing. Sensor networks play the major role in those approaches.
Wireless sensor network technologies have enabled sensor nodes to be deployed in quantity to gather environmental parameters and to detect certain events by using inexpensive sensors and microcontrollers. This information transfer to main system using low-cost RF hardware. This paper presents an overview of recent developments in wireless sensor technologies in the food industry. It advocate the deployment of a WSN in agriculture because of its small size, low fixed cost and simplicity of wiring.
This involves monitoring soil, crop and climate conditions in a field, generalizing the result and providing a decision support system for treatments or taking differential action such as real time variation of fertilizer or pesticide application. The DSS gathers information from a weather station and the wireless network. This is employed to map out a temperature and soil humidity distribution which is used to develop an effective strategy for controlling diseases such as Phytophthora.